In India, a nation of shopkeepers frets over retail reform

NEW DELHI Thu Sep 20, 2012 8:53pm IST

1 of 4. Customers shop in a family-owned store at a market in New Delhi September 18, 2012.

Credit: Reuters/Mansi Thapliyal

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NEW DELHI (Reuters) - Customers squeezing through the narrow aisles of Sushant Goel's tiny grocery store in central Delhi need to be careful. Just brushing up against the rickety free-standing shelves packed with food and toiletries can cause them to wobble dangerously.

Goel, 61, inherited the general store, or kirana, in Delhi's Bengali Market from his father 23 years ago and is now slowly handing over the business to his sons. Like many kiranas, it is a business built on a reputation for reliability of service, one earned over generations.

But thousands of kirana owners like Goel planned to close their shops on Thursday to protest against a government decision to allow in foreign supermarkets such as Wal-Mart Stores Inc. They fear the move could lead to the destruction of the ubiquitous family-owned stores that occupy a central place in Indian daily life and help give the country the highest shop density in the world.

"If these big guys storm in and wreck what I've fostered for decades, then my family and I will have to resort to a different business," said Goel, who - after much thought - decided to open on Thursday because he couldn't afford to lose the business.

These fears are being exploited by the main opposition Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), despite the pro-business party itself having championed retail reform when it was in power more than a decade ago. Elections are due soon in several states, and many, including Goel, see the BJP's call for protests as a cynical ploy to curry favour with kirana owners.

With an estimated 50 million kiranas and some 220 million people dependent on them for their livelihoods, according to the Confederation of All India Traders, mom-and-pop store owners represent a huge political constituency. India, it is said, is a nation of shopkeepers.

Political parties of all stripes have loudly rejected the government's decision and warned that better-organised foreign supermarkets will wipe out kiranas, leaving millions unemployed.

But Reuters interviews with industry analysts, store owners and some of their customers suggest that while change is inevitable in India's mostly unorganised retail sector, kiranas will likely survive and perhaps even thrive alongside supermarkets.

How? Location.

Kiranas are in every nook and cranny of densely populated neighbourhoods, whereas domestic supermarkets are mostly found in shopping malls. With land at a premium, foreign supermarkets will likely have to set up shop outside the main cities.

Kiranas also offer goods and services specifically tailored to customers who usually live only a few blocks away from the store. Want a box of matches delivered free to your home, or two eggs instead of six, or rice by the ounce instead of the pound, and all of it on credit until the end of the month?

Kirana owners understand the importance of customer loyalty in a competitive market and easily accommodate such requests.

"It's like craving Domino's Pizza and spicy street-side snacks at the same time. I want a mix of both," said investment banker Aramya Jain, 38, as she shopped in Goel's kirana, picking up a bottle of mango pickle, an assortment of Indian spices, foreign-brand cereal and chocolate syrup.

Kirana shops vary in size, most of them smaller than 400 square feet (37.2 sq metres). Some are walk-in stores but many owners operate out of residential garages or run hole-in-the-wall operations where they sell their goods over the counter.

"The political mayhem over fears of extinction of these shops seems misplaced," the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and global accounting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers said in a study released this month.

"The traditional kirana stores and outlets in India have been able to compete very successfully with modern retail for a very long time," it said. "Their presence in the midst of a residential area is a big advantage."


Driven by a swelling middle class and growing incomes, the value of the retail sector is expected to surge to $1.3 trillion by 2020, the report said. Organised retail, which now accounts for only about 5 percent of the sector, is expected to outstrip growth by unorganised retail.

Estimates of the current size of the retail sector vary. FICCI pegged it at $500 billion, but government data gives a lower estimate of $350-$370 billion.

While Sushant Goel is hopeful his business will ultimately survive the entry of foreign supermarkets, just as it weathered the arrival of national supermarkets a decade ago, other kirana owners are not so confident.

In the industrial hub of Noida, about 16 km (10 miles) from Goel's store, Brijesh Bhati stands inside his dimly lit store, which operates out of a 300 square feet garage - just enough space for two employees to grab goods off the shelves and hand them over the counter to customers.

"If the foreigners do come in, they will snatch everything from us. It will be like the British Raj again. But we will drive them out, just like we did before," said Bhati.

The "foreigners", many of whom already operate joint cash-and-carry ventures with Indian partners, won't be coming in any time soon. The government's new policy of allowing foreign chains a 51 percent stake in supermarkets for the first time comes with tough conditions.

Foreign retailers will be allowed to set up only in cities with a population of more than 1 million and only in states that want them. The retailers must make a minimum investment of $100 million and must source at least 30 percent of goods from local, small industries.

But the Confederation of All India Traders, which represents small and medium-sized businesses in the unorganised retail sector, fears that foreign supermarkets will crush opposition by undercutting the mom-and-pop stores with lower prices.

"Once they are able to wipe out the competition, they control and dominate the retail and then dictate the prices," said Praveen Khandelwal, the confederation's general secretary. "If we allow them to have total control from back-end to front-end, then the country will become captive at the hands of multinational companies."

Such fears are overblown, said Debashish Mukherjee, a partner at global management consultancy A.T. Kearney. Consumers tend to visit supermarkets to do monthly shops or make bulk purchases while still relying on mom-and-pop stores for smaller items.

Back in his new Delhi store, Goel is banking on carefully earned customer loyalty to keep him in business: the well-thumbed notebooks on his counter containing customers' monthly credit accounts are key to that.

"Over the years we've become like family to most of our customers and that's why we offer them services that foreign supermarkets most likely will not," he said.

(Writing by Annie Banerji and Ross Colvin; Editing by John Chalmers and Ian Geoghegan)

We welcome comments that advance the story through relevant opinion, anecdotes, links and data. If you see a comment that you believe is irrelevant or inappropriate, you can flag it to our editors by using the report abuse links. Views expressed in the comments do not represent those of Reuters. For more information on our comment policy, see
Comments (6)
VED036 wrote:
There was a time when STD (phone) booth owners would destroy the One Rupee Coin Phone booths, saying it is eating into their revenue. Similarly so many persons come with various claims. When an English medium school is started anywhere, the government paid Private Management school teacher will go on a campaign to have it stopped, by trying to deny them license. They fear that they will lose their jobs.

If they lose their business or their job, they have to find new ones. They cant keep the rest of the nation and the people on Blackmail.

This nation and the people are being fooled by them. Let the new Mall enters. I am not saying they will bring in British quality here, but then there will be some quality change.

Sep 19, 2012 9:01am IST  --  Report as abuse
VED036 wrote:
Let the BRITISH RAJ come back!

Sep 19, 2012 9:02am IST  --  Report as abuse
gemrajesh wrote:
India is more on the track of USA business model, since many of the small grocery shops will have to close down due to competition with chain stores. We always look on development with our own culture and our standards and not copying other countries.
First people should understand the purchasing, for example chain stores, stores located in the malls are paying much higher rent which inturn the rent cost are added in the products and it will again put on our head.

Sep 19, 2012 10:18am IST  --  Report as abuse
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