RBI to sell dollars to oil companies to shore up rupee

MUMBAI Wed Aug 28, 2013 11:25pm IST

A security guard stands in the lobby of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) headquarters in Mumbai July 30, 2013. REUTERS/Vivek Prakash/Files

A security guard stands in the lobby of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) headquarters in Mumbai July 30, 2013.

Credit: Reuters/Vivek Prakash/Files

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MUMBAI (Reuters) - The Reserve Bank of India will provide dollars directly to state oil companies in its latest attempt to shore up a currency that has slumped to a record low, reflecting the stiff economic challenges facing the country in an uncertain global environment.

The Reserve Bank of India announced late on Wednesday a special window "with immediate effect" to sell dollars through a designated bank to Indian Oil Corp Ltd (IOC.NS), Hindustan Petroleum Corp (HPCL.NS), and Bharat Petroleum Corp "until further notice".

The RBI last opened such a window during the 2008 global financial crisis, although it had been widely expected to re-implement the measures after last month telling oil companies to buy dollars from a single bank.

The steps are the latest in a series of extraordinary measures undertaken by the RBI to combat a currency fall of more than 20 percent this year, by far the biggest decline among the Asian currencies tracked by Reuters.

State-run companies are the biggest source of dollar demand in markets - worth $400 million to $500 million daily - and directing them to a special window is meant to reduce pressure on the rupee, which fell as much as 3.7 percent to an all-time low of 68.85 on Wednesday, recording its biggest one-day fall in 18 years.

Rupees traded in markets outside of India recovered after the measures, with one-month forward contracts dealt at 68.30 from levels of around 70 rupees before the announcement.

"Immediately it should help the spot market and improve sentiment," said A. Prasanna, an economist at ICICI Securities Primary Dealership in Mumbai.

"But then we have to see how global markets move because some of fall in the last few days is also because of global developments."

The rupee fell on Wednesday on worries that foreign investors will continue to sell out of a country in the midst of domestic woes and a global environment marked by fears of a possible U.S.-led military strike against Syria and the looming end to the Federal Reserve's period of cheap money.

Officials familiar with RBI thinking told Reuters the dollar sales for state-run oil companies would be offset by positions in forward markets.

That means that although the RBI would need to dip into its currency reserves, it had the prospect of replenishing the lost dollars at a future date by redeeming the forward contracts from oil companies when the rupee stabilises.

The offsetting positions would essentially make these dollar loans, designed to reduce concerns about reserves that at $279 billion, cover only about seven months of imports.

The action further cements the role the central bank is taking to combat the fall in the rupee, as the government has yet to unveil steps that can convince markets it can stabilise the rupee and attract foreign investment.

India badly needs this capital as it struggles with a record high current account deficit, growing fiscal pressures and an economy growing at the slowest in a decade.


The failure to address India's economic challenges is becoming an increasing source of tension at a time when rising domestic bond yields threaten to raise borrowing costs across the already slowing economy, while global prices of oil and gold - the country's two biggest imports - have surged this week.

Foreign investors have sold almost $1 billion of Indian shares in the eight sessions through Tuesday - a worrisome prospect given stocks had been India's one sturdy source of capital inflows with net purchases so far this year still totalling nearly $12 billion.

India's main National Stock Exchange index fell as much as 3.2 percent on Wednesday, although suspected buying by state-run insurer Life Insurance Corporation - often the buyer of last resort - led the index to recover by the close.

In bond markets, foreign investors have sold more heavily, with outflows reaching nearly $4.6 billion so far this year.

"If steps are not taken to implement the reforms necessary to tackle the structural issues, the government will be left with the so-called "3D options": debt default, devaluation, deflation," said Angelo Corbetta, head of Asia equity for Pioneer Investments in London.

"In India, devaluation is happening now and deflation could be about to start. The good news is that the debt default is highly unlikely."

BNP Paribas on Wednesday slashed its economic growth forecast for India for the fiscal year to March 2014 to 3.7 percent from its previous 5.2 percent - the weakest growth since 1991-92 when India buckled under a balance of payments crisis that required a loan from the International Monetary Fund.

"India's parliament remains toxically dysfunctional with little, if any, business conducted," BNP said.

"And, with next year's general election looming ever nearer, the government's willingness to instigate a politically unpopular fiscal tightening is close to nil."

The government has tried but failed to provide a coherent response, analysts said.

Its approval of infrastructure projects on Tuesday was trumped by concerns about the fiscal deficit after the lower house of parliament this week approved a 1.35 trillion rupee plan to provide cheap grain to the poor.

India is due to post April-June gross domestic product data on Friday, with analysts estimating the economy grew at an annual rate of 4.7 percent, roughly in line with the previous quarter. It will also post July federal fiscal deficit figures.

(Writing by Rafael Nam; Additional reporting by Swati Bhat, Himank Sharma, and Abhishek Vishnoi; Editing by Kim Coghill, Nick Macfie and David Evans)

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Comments (1)
IvyMumbai wrote:
Am writing this so that you can bring to the markets attention another fraud that has unfolded – surprisingly from the RBI this time. Ivy educated fund manager here in amchi Mumbai.

This concerns the swap arrangement between the oil companies and the RBI on foreign exchange that the oil companies require for oil imports.

The RBI is basically telling India’s currency market – “Look guys we don’t like the exchange rates the currency market is producing, so guess what, we’re suspending a large part of it.”

They are doing this by making the oil companies buy dollars directly from the RBI, and not from the market.

This takes the oil companies off the currency markets, and reduces demand for dollars and selling of rupees in the currency markets. This presumably strengthens the rupee temporarily.

But notice the absurdity. The RBI in effect has created a two tier market for the currency. It has also prevented genuine price discovery of the most important price in the economy – the exchange rate. It is actually gradually suspending current account convertability in India.

Note another absurdity. This means the monthly 9 billion in US dollars the oil companies need has to be bought from the RBI. This directly draws down the country’s foreign exchange reserves in the middle of a currency crisis. So the RBIs forex reserves should reduce by 9 bln a month. In 6 months, that’s over 50 billion in reserves.

Clearly this is unacceptable to the RBI. The RBI will therefore look for trading partners with whom India has a trading (ie) current account surplus and then swap the rupees they get from the oil companies for dollars, thereby maintaining their reserves.

But notice these countries are few and far between. It is impossible to arrange 9 billion dollars a month in swap deals with trading partners with whom we have a trade surplus. After all the overall current account is in a massive deficit !

So the next stage of the con game. The oil companies have to REPAY, yes REPAY, the RBI at some time in the future the reserves they have drawn down. They have to do this by accounting for the arrangement as a “swap” deal.

Basically since the oil companies have bought dollars and sold rupees their accounting is complete. So presumably, they have to treat the swaps as an off balance sheet item. Presumably the RBI will also treat it as an off balance sheet item. So technically the RBIs reserves are not touched as they can claim the amount will be repaid. So the RBIs balance sheet will also reflect the swap as an off balance sheet item, and the foreign exchange reserves will not be affected !!

Analysts will now have to ask the RBI if the declared foreign exchange reserves are before – or after – accounting for the swap arrangement.

This is ofcourse the same sort of nonsense that destroyed Enron. The Indian central bank is now reduced to Enron type accounting and finance measures to hide its exposure. Enron tried to hide debt this way, and the RBI is trying to hide forex reserve losses this way !!

Notice also that this exposes India’s oil marketing companies to exchange rate movements and effectively makes them speculate on future exchange rates. If the rupee dollar pair goes to say 75, the OMCs will have to take a hit, as they buy at this rate and repay the RBI in dollars.

Conveniently, that is also taken care off. The OMCs are allowed to INDEFINATELY keep rolling over the swaps in the event of this happening.

This is typically Indian nonsense at its worst.

This is the reason the world simply does not trust us anymore. At some point the markets will see through this nonsense and the rupee will continue its slide.

Aug 29, 2013 11:04am IST  --  Report as abuse
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