* Algeria under pressure to reform after oil price drop
* Government seeks new funding sources
* Islamic finance may help tap huge informal economy
* State banks plan to offer Islamic products in coming
* Interest-free loan announced but no details yet
By Hamid Ould Ahmed
ALGIERS, April 12 When experts in Islamic
banking gathered earlier this year at a state-run hotel in
Algiers to share their experiences on sharia-compliant finance,
no one from the government showed up.
But despite this hesitancy - government officials are
reluctant even to refer to Islamic finance by that name -
Algeria is edging slowly towards offering banking services to
suit more religiously conservative investors.
The object is to attract funds from a huge pool of cash held
outside the formal banking system as Algeria looks for more ways
to offset the sharp fall in oil prices and its energy revenues.
Finance Minister Hadji Baba Ammi has already announced plans
for the country's first local bond that is interest-free,
complying with sharia law which forbids interest payments -
although he called the scheme "participative" rather than
Now six state-run banks plan to start Islamic financial
services by the end of the year or in early 2018, and a national
sharia board that would oversee Islamic banking is also planned
by the end of 2017, banking and government sources told Reuters.
Algeria's Islamic finance plan still faces huge barriers. It
lacks a legal framework and technical expertise, and officials
must navigate sensitivities over any perceived revival of
political Islam after a 1990s war with armed Islamist militants
in which 200,000 people died.
On top of such concerns, any kind of reform is often delayed
in Algeria by heavy bureaucracy and inertia, but bankers are
keen to push ahead with the idea.
"Financial institutions must be more dynamic and aggressive
in the market by allowing Islamic products to grow," said Nasser
Haider, head of Bahrain-owned Al Salam Bank Algeria.
"Regulation has not been a hurdle for Islamic finance in
Algeria, but a legal framework would help its development."
With the economy emerging from decades of centralised
control, Algeria badly needs alternatives to the energy revenues
that have traditionally financed 60 percent of the budget.
The plunge in global crude prices from mid-2014 halved
earnings from exports of oil and gas. In 2015 the budget deficit
shot up to 16 percent of Algeria's annual gross domestic product
(GDP) and the government is estimated to have narrowed the gap
only to 15 percent last year.
A state fund intended to cover such deficits plunged 59.5
percent over the course of last year while foreign exchange
reserves are estimated to have dropped to $114 billion by the
end of 2016 from $178 billion in 2014.
The government has approved a 14 percent cut in spending
for 2017 and higher taxes.
Algeria issued a conventional, interest-bearing bond on the
domestic market last year. But the amount raised, $5.86 billion,
fell short of expectations after religious leaders - and even
the government's own ministry of religious affairs - gave the
operation a chilly reception. One well-known preacher told the
finance minister: "You will suffer inside your tomb."
Algeria is far behind North African neighbours Morocco and
Tunisia, which have started to develop legislation for Islamic
finance and sukuk bonds, overseen by a central religious board.
That may change if the planned Algerian national sharia
board comes to fruition later this year, a government source
familiar with Islamic financing plans told Reuters.
Algeria is targetting domestic savers rather than foreign
investors. Many local people distrust the state-owned banks and
keep large sums at home, untaxed, in Algerian and foreign
Experts put informal economy savings at about $90 billion.
That would be roughly equal to half Algeria's annual GDP, and
the government launched a study last month in partnership with
the United Nations Development Programme to assess the real size
of the parallel market.
Last year it failed to draw money from the informal market
when it offered a fiscal amnesty under which Algerians could
deposit undeclared income and pay a 7 percent fee.
Instead, the government needs to cater for religious
conservatives. "Current funding methods are still very weak,"
said Mohamed Mouloudi, an Islam analyst and editor of religious
books. "Giving the green light to Islamic finance through the
participative option would help attract much money from
The six state banks have now almost finished preparations
for sharia-based financial services, said Boualem Djebbar, who
heads the Banks and Financial Institutions Association as well
as the Banque de l'Agriculture et du Developpement Rural. "They
will offer participative financing soon," he said.
A government source told Reuters three of the banks would
launch Islamic products in the summer and a fourth may join them
at the end of the year. For the other two, that may happen in
A source at one of the banks, the Banque de Developpement
Local, said it would be ready within three months. "BDL will
launch at least two new products with one focusing on financing
based on the murabaha principle at the start of the second half
of 2017," the source said, referring to a cost-plus-profit
arrangement widely used to structure Islamic loans.
Al Salam Bank Algeria and Al Baraka Bank Algeria, local
units of Bahrain-listed Islamic banks Al Salam Bank and Al
Baraka Banking Group, are also already operating in Algeria. But
their market share is estimated by experts at less than 4
percent. They offer retail and commercial banking services.
Al Salam Bank has submitted a proposal to the finance
ministry to use some form of Islamic finance for partial funding
of a $3.2 billion port west of Algiers. Chinese banks will also
provide around $1.5 billion for the project.
SUBJECT TO SLIPPAGE
Algeria's cautious approach to Islamic finance matches its
wrestling with the kind of reforms it needs to deal with the
sharp fall in oil prices. "The government preferred a gradual
approach," said Abelhak Lamiri, who serves as an economic
consultant for the government.
Timetables are subject to slippage. In February the state
news agency APS, quoting the finance minister, said the
interest-free bond would be launched by the end of April.
However, this was subject to government approval and so far no
details have been announced.
Still, state media remain keen on the idea. "The option for
Islamic banking products in this time of crisis can only
strengthen the financial sector through the diversification of
bank offerings," wrote state-run newspaper El Moudjahid, which
usually reflects government opinion. "Islamic products will also
help attract informal savings."
(Additional reporting by Bernardo Vizcaino in New York; Editing
by Patrick Markey and David Stamp)