(The opinions expressed here are those of the author, a
columnist for Reuters.)
* Graphic: tmsnrt.rs/2nZRORf
By Andy Home
LONDON, April 10 Lithium was the super-hot
metals story of 2016.
A spectacular price rally propelled lithium out of the
metallic shadows onto the global investment stage.
This year it is the turn of cobalt.
The price of cobalt traded on the London Metal Exchange
(LME) has exploded from $33,000 per tonne to $55,000
since the start of January.
This time last year, the price was bombed out at multi-year
lows below $25,000 per tonne.
As with lithium, cobalt's story is all about batteries and
the green technology revolution.
The lithium-cobalt battery is already standard in many
electronic applications and both metals are expected to see
usage accelerate thanks to the rapidly evolving electric vehicle
and grid storage sectors.
And as with lithium, stellar demand projections have led to
increased scrutiny of the supply chain.
Which is where cobalt may turn out to be even more of a
rollercoaster market than lithium.
Graphic on the LME cobalt price: tmsnrt.rs/2nZRORf
THE SCRAMBLE FOR COBALT
The scale and speed of the cobalt price surge over the last
few months reflects a scramble for units.
The cobalt market has been transitioning over the last year
or so from a state of oversupply to one of shortfall, with most
analysts forecasting a supply deficit in 2017.
That expectation coupled with all the excitement surrounding
the lithium story seems to have led to several high-profile
funds such as Switzerland's Pala Investments and China's
Shanghai Chaos Investment buying up physical stocks of cobalt.
Which in turn seems to have triggered panic buying by cobalt
users along the manufacturing chain.
The cumulative effect has been a near straight-line price
rally since the fourth quarter of last year.
As ever with such rapid and violent price action, though,
the drivers have in all probability abated just as the rest of
the world sits up and pays attention.
That was how lithium played out last year and that's how
analysts think cobalt will play out this year.
With the immediate panic about availability over, the upside
price impetus should fade, leading to a period of consolidation
or mild retreat over the second half of this year.
A FRAGILE SUPPLY CHAIN
But cobalt's supply chain is much more fragile than that of
lithium, with its big, established players operating brine lakes
in the relatively stable environment of the "Lithium Triangle"
straddling Chile and Argentina.
Cobalt, by contrast, is massively dependent on one highly
unstable African country, the Democratic Republic of Congo
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates that last year
the DRC accounted for 66,000 tonnes of global mined cobalt
production of 123,000 tonnes.
In terms of reserves the country is estimated to have 3.4
million tonnes of cobalt, around half of the world's identified
resources, again according to the USGS.
Cobalt mining in the DRC is dominated by Swiss trade house
Glencore and a variety of Chinese players, all of which extract
the metal as a copper by-product.
That's another kink in the cobalt supply chain since there
are hardly any pure cobalt mines, leaving global production
dependent on the economics of other metals such as copper and
Glencore's decision in late 2015 to suspend production at
its Kamoto copper operations, for example, has also taken around
3,000 tonnes of cobalt out of the supply picture.
It will bring that production back on line next year but
other short-term boosts to supply are likely few and far between
because of the resource spending freeze that followed the low
base-metals price environment of 2014-2015.
One producer, however, is probably able to react to higher
prices and it's a particularly problematic player.
Artisanal mining is the "known unknown" in the DRC and
global cobalt supply chain.
It may account for anything up to a fifth of the country's
output but is difficult to quantify since it exists in the
shadows of the official sector.
Like artisanal mining everywhere, production tends to be
highly sensitive to price.
It's worth noting that despite the explosive rally towards
the end of the year, 2016 was a period of low average pricing.
China's imports of cobalt raw materials shrank by 35 percent
to 150,000 tonnes (bulk weight), with supply from the DRC
falling by a harder 41 percent to 132,000 tonnes.
Some contraction in artisanal output was almost certainly in
This year, however, with prices at multi-year highs and
China needing to restock raw materials again, it is the
artisanal part of the supply chain that will act as swing
In essence, the current structure of the cobalt market means
the key determinant of market balance and price will be the
least transparent component of global production.
And also the most controversial component, given the
increasing focus on ethical supply chains.
Cobalt has so far escaped the same level of scrutiny as,
say, tin and tantalum, both of which also come from the DRC.
But it is only a matter of time before that changes, meaning
even more pressure on the artisanal contribution to global
TRADEABLE AND VOLATILE
Cobalt's problematic supply chain, with too much coming from
one country and too much coming from the "grey" artisanal
sector, may yet hobble its longer-term usage profile.
But right now it and lithium are two of the front-runners in
the green revolution materials race.
It's partly that calculation that persuaded funds to get
involved in cobalt as a lithium catch-up trade.
Cobalt is also easier to buy and store than lithium, which
remains tightly controlled by a small oligopoly of producers.
The flip side, though, is it's also easier to short sell on
an exchange such as the LME.
The LME's cobalt contract has been trading since 2010 and
has done no more than tick quietly over for most of that time.
Volumes really started picking up late last year, though, as
the price rally gathered momentum. Activity in the first two
months of this year jumped to 2,396 lots from just 620 lots last
For now, it's the only exchange-traded cobalt contract. But
that's one more than exists in the lithium market.
It's that tradeability that makes cobalt a potentially more
volatile commodity than lithium. And given the nature of the
cobalt supply chain, there may be no shortage of reasons for
(Editing by Dale Hudson)