By John Kemp
LONDON, June 11 The shale revolution is likely
to have a far bigger effect on the global gas market than on oil
supplies, entrenching the long-term price advantage of gas,
according to new data from the Energy Information Administration
Shale will extend recoverable oil resources by only 11
percent but boost recoverable gas resources by 47 percent,
according to the agency's report on "Technically recoverable
shale oil and gas resources: an assessment of 137 shale
formations in 41 countries outside the United States".
Shale formations could produce an extra 345 billion barrels
of crude with current technology. But that is a relatively small
increment compared with the 1,642 billion barrels of already
proved oil reserves and 1,370 billion barrels of as-yet unproved
resources that are thought to be available from other sources.
Global oil consumption is currently running around 33
billion barrels per year, so shale would extend the current
resource base by around 10 years at present rates of use.
By contrast, shale gas could extend gas resources by 7,302
trillion cubic feet, comparable to existing proved reserves of
6,741 trillion cubic feet and unproved resources of 8,842
trillion cubic feet.
Shale would extend the life of gas reserves by 60 years.
In terms of energy content, shale has pushed up global gas
resources from the equivalent of 2.7 trillion barrels of oil to
almost 4 trillion, while crude resources have risen from 3.0
trillion to 3.4 trillion.
The implication is that hydraulic fracturing will have a
much bigger impact on the availability of gas and could help
cement the current cost advantage of using gas as a transport
fuel as well as a cheap source of power generation.
The main reason why hydraulic fracturing and horizontal
drilling are expected to have a bigger impact on gas is that gas
flows much more easily through fractured rock formations.
"Based on U.S. shale production experience, the recovery
factors used in this report for shale gas generally ranged from
20 percent to 30 percent," EIA wrote.
"Because of oil's greater viscosity and capillary forces,
oil does not flow through rock fractures as easily ...
Consequently, the recovery factors for shale oil are typically
lower than they are for shale gas, ranging from 3 percent to 7
percent of the oil in place," the agency wrote.
Even in the best shale plays, such as Bakken in North Dakota
and Eagle Ford in Texas, producers have recovered less than 10
percent of the oil and liquids originally in place.
Shale formations outside the United States could contain as
much as 5.8 trillion barrels of crude and liquids, according to
EIA, but just 287 billion may be recoverable, an average
recovery factor of 5 percent.
"Much of the shale resource exists in countries with limited
endowments of conventional oil and gas ...(or) countries where
conventional hydrocarbon resources have largely been depleted,"
according to the study.
Exploiting shale could therefore reduce these countries'
risks of intentional or unintentional disruptions due to war or
Shale oil and gas resources are more widely distributed than
their conventional counterparts. But a slightly larger share of
the shale oil resource is concentrated in countries such as
Russia, Libya and Venezuela that are already major conventional
producers, whereas more gas is concentrated in countries that
are big importers such as China.
Assuming countries without large conventional deposits have
a stronger incentive to develop shale, the distribution suggests
shale gas could be developed slightly more quickly than oil.
The distribution of resources also suggests growing shale
gas supplies will continue to pose a strong challenge to oil
producers and exert long-term downward pressure on prices.
In the United States, gas currently costs less than a
quarter of crude after differences in their energy content are
taken into account.
Much of that advantage stems from the gas drilling boom in
2004-2008 as well as the relative isolation of the U.S. gas
market. Unlike oil, which trades in a global market, the
international gas market is small, and gas prices show big
Gas and oil prices are much more closely aligned in the rest
of the world. Even in the United States, the gap is likely to
narrow once a new set of LNG terminals awaiting regulatory
approval are built.
Nonetheless, if the shale report is right, natural gas
should still retain some of its cost advantage in the medium and
Seasoned industry observers have already noted that the
current differential is unsustainable. "Something's got to give
if that differential stays around for too long," Total
Chief Executive Christophe de Margerie said last year
Until now it has not been clear whether the gap will close
mostly through a rise in the price of gas, a fall in the price
of oil or some combination of the two. The comparative abundance
of shale gas suggests oil prices are much more likely to
converge down to gas, rather than the other way around.
Given the geological differences, natural gas looks set to
be the lower cost way of adding reserves over the next couple of
Many international oil companies already have significant
gas assets. Natural gas accounted for 50 percent of Shell's
total production in 2012.
At some point, the international oil companies will need to
find better ways to monetise their gas assets. The majors have
the resources to push gas deeper into the transport market by
helping pay for infrastructure and promoting gas-fuelled
vehicles, according to one analyst.
Shale oil resources may delay the transition to the more
widespread use of gas as a transport fuel, but given the
relative abundance of the two fuels, some switch to gas seems
inevitable in the longer term, and the threat will help keep a
lid on long-term oil prices.