| VIENNA, June 26
VIENNA, June 26 A fresh blight is poised to hit
Afghanistan's poppy fields this year, driving up opium prices
and threatening to fuel a shift to potentially lethal heroin
substitutes like "krokodil", the U.N. drugs watchdog said on
Plant diseases destroyed nearly half the 2010 opium harvest
in Afghanistan, the world's biggest producer, but output there
rebounded 61 percent last year, the U.N. Office on Drugs and
Crime (UNODC) said in its 2012 World Drug Report.
That helped put global opium production at 7,000 tonnes in
2011, still more than a fifth below the 2007 peak.
"We may anticipate that this year there will be another
plant disease - maybe not to the same scale as 2010 - but (it)
still may affect, especially in the southern part of
Afghanistan, poppy cultivation," UNODC Executive Director Yuri
"This means that the production of opium may not increase or
may even decrease, but at the same time definitely it would lead
to an increase in prices for the next year. That is something we
need to address very seriously."
The UNODC report cited indications that shortages had
encouraged users in some countries to replace heroin with other
substances such as desomorphine - whose street name is krokodil
- acetylated opium, and synthetic narcotics.
Krokodil is a crude, codeine-based drug that users inject,
risking serious health problems as it attacks body tissue.
"It is a powerful drug which can kill people in just two
months, in a few weeks," Fedotov said.
It was hard to gauge what impact the 2010 crop failure in
Afghanistan had on major markets, the report said, but drug
seizures fell in most countries getting Afghan opiates. Some
European countries, including Britain and Russia, saw heroin
Opiate prices in Europe and the Americas had not changed
much since 2009, officials said, but farm-gate prices in
Afghanistan and number-two producer Myanmar kept rising in 2010
and 2011. A kilo of opium costs around $200-$250 in Afghanistan.
Rising prices at times of increasing output could reflect
under-reported demand from Asia and Africa, a growing market for
raw opium not made into heroin, a parallel market for morphine
or speculation on local markets, the report said.
Drug syndicates also tended to stockpile opium to be able to
smooth out supply fluctuations, UNODC officials said.
CANNABIS ON TOP
The 2012 report showed overall use of illicit drugs seems to
have stabilised but was on the rise in several developing
countries, especially those along trafficking routes.
Fedotov cited as an example growing consumption of cocaine
in West Africa, now a transit route for shipping Latin American
supplies to Europe, increasingly from Bolivia and Peru as output
in Colombia - mainly bound for North America - declines.
Cannabis remained the world's most popular illicit drug,
with between 119 million and 224 million established users
worldwide, the report said.
That was followed by amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), the
use of which was largely stable, although methamphetamine and
ecstasy appeared to be on the rise.
Seizures of methamphetamine more than doubled in 2010 from
2008 due to big hauls in central America and Asia. Ecstasy pill
seizures more than doubled in Europe from 2009 to 2010, and the
drug's use seemed to be rising in the United States and Oceania.
The report stressed the health and security threats illicit
drugs posed, renewing UNODC's call for an integrated approach to
reducing both supply and demand.
"Heroin, cocaine and other drugs continue to kill around
200,000 people a year, shattering families and bringing misery
to thousands of other people, insecurity and the spread of HIV,"
Around 230 million people, roughly five percent of the
world's adult population, are estimated to have used an illicit
drug at least once in 2010. Around 27 million, or 0.6 percent of
adults, are problem drug users, mainly of heroin and cocaine.
By contrast, surveys have shown 42 percent of adults drink
alcohol and a quarter use tobacco.
Fedotov said his agency was looking into reports that
Uruguay's government planned to legalise the marijuana market as
part of a drive to stop rising crime.
"If these reports are confirmed, of course it will be a
disappointing development," he told reporters, citing
international conventions against such a step.
"Cannabis is not so innocent as some people prefer to
describe (it)," he said, noting its users faced irreversible
physiological changes and often moved on to harder drugs.
(Reporting by Michael Shields; Editing by Nick Macfie)