BANGKOK, March 13 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Thailand
needs to rein in rapid depletion of its natural resources,
create more and better jobs, and provide support to millions of
the poorest if it is to achieve green growth that brings
prosperity to all, the World Bank said on Monday.
"We believe that when economic development benefits all
groups in society, then that will by itself contribute to
stability and social cohesion," Ulrich Zachau, the bank's
director for Southeast Asia, told journalists at the launch of a
report on getting Thailand's economic growth back on track.
Between 1986 and 2014, high growth reduced poverty in
Thailand from 67 percent to 10.5 percent of its population, the
But the country has been troubled by unrest in the past
decade. In 2014, a coup restored an uneasy peace.
In that year, 7.1 million Thais, mostly outside Bangkok,
were still living in poverty, with an additional 6.7 million at
risk of falling back into it, the report said.
Agricultural prices and job creation - two of the country's
growth engines in previous decades - have declined.
Meanwhile, one-third of all 15-year-olds nationwide are
functionally illiterate, the report said. The number rises to 47
percent in villages, underlining the inequality between the
capital city and the rest of Thailand.
The Southeast Asian nation of 66 million people is also
experiencing a slowdown in job creation caused by a weak global
economy and loss of its competitive edge.
A decade ago, Thailand ranked above other Southeast Asian
and upper-middle-income countries on all dimensions measured in
the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Today,
other nations have caught up, the World Bank report said.
Climate change and environmental degradation, meanwhile, are
making Thailand more vulnerable to natural disasters, the World
Bank report warned.
The rate of depletion of Thailand's natural resources -
including forests, mangroves and coral reefs - has sped up in
the last decade, the report showed.
At 4.4 percent of gross national income, it is similar to
other countries in the East Asia and Pacific region, but is
almost double the rate in 2002 and three times the rate in the
Climate change is expected to bring more frequent coastal
flooding to low-lying Thailand, with the biggest threat to
Bangkok and central areas, the report said.
Deforestation, caused mainly by illegal logging and
smuggling, and poor planning for public infrastructure
exacerbate flood risks, the report added.
Severe floods in Bangkok in 2011 resulted in losses
estimated at $46.5 billion. About 19,000 homes were destroyed
and 2.5 million people displaced, World Bank figures showed.
Saline intrusion from sea-level rise could also cause Thai
coastal farms to be less productive, the report said.
According to the Thai meteorological department, the
country's annual mean temperature rose by 1 degree Celsius from
1981 to 2007, and precipitation has suffered an overall decrease
over the last 50 years, raising the risk of drought.
Embarking on more environmentally conscious growth requires
better land zoning and management, alongside the promotion of
energy efficiency and clean energy, the World Bank report said.
But despite pledges to reduce its climate-changing
emissions, the majority of which come from the energy sector,
Thailand is looking to build 7,390 megawatts of coal-fired power
plants over the next 20 years, the report noted.
(Reporting By Thin Lei Win, Editing by Megan Rowling; Please
credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of
Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, women’s rights,
corruption and climate change. Visit www.trust.org)