March 23, 2020 / 3:05 PM / 9 days ago

FACTBOX-The economic remedies for the coronavirus

 (Recasts throughout, updates with details and latest actions)
    March 23 (Reuters) - Policymakers and government leaders have employed a range of escalating and in some cases unprecedented
measures in an effort to mitigate the economic fallout from the coronavirus, from private sector loan guarantees to credit liquidity
intervention to direct fiscal stimulus.
    Here is a list of how some of the world's biggest economies and economic blocs have responded thus far, starting with the latest
ones. This list will be updated with additional details as they are available. Some measures may require additional approval. 
    In addition to the actions listed here, most central banks have also cut benchmark rates, a full list of which is here.

 Date    Country    Type            Amount     Amount   Details (as reported by Reuters)                               Link
                                    (local)    (USD                                                                    
                                               Bln)*                                                                   
 Mar 23  U.S.       Credit Support  n/a        n/a      The new programs mean the Fed will lend against student                       
         (Fed)                                          loans, credit card loans, and U.S. government backed-loans to  
                                                        small businesses, and buy bonds of larger employers and make   
                                                        loans to them in what amounts to four years of bridge          
                                                        financing. A new "Main Street Business Lending Program" that   
                                                        will extend credit to small- and-medium sized businesses will  
                                                        also be announced "soon," the Fed said.                        
 Mar 23  New        Asset           NZ$30        $17.0  The programme will purchase up to NZ$30 billion ($17 billion)                 
         Zealand    Purchases       billion             of New Zealand government bonds, across a range of             
         (RBNZ)                                         maturities, in the secondary market over the next 12 months.   
 Mar 22  Australia  Fiscal          A$66.4       $38.5  Australia said any business with a turnover of less than A$50                 
                    Stimulus        billion             million will be eligible for A$100,000 in assistance. Welfare  
                                                        payments for those who lose their jobs and those people        
                                                        already receiving welfare will be increased.  Morrison will    
                                                        also say that Australia will also underwrite 50% of up A$40    
                                                        billion in loans offered by local lenders to small and medium  
                                                        sized companies.                                               
 Mar 21  Germany    Emergency       150         $160.0  The package will include a supplementary government budget of                 
                    Budget          billion             156 billion euros, 100 billion euros for an economic           
                                    euros               stability fund that can take direct equity stakes in           
                                                        companies, and 100 billion euros in credit to public-sector    
                                                        development bank KfW for loans to struggling businesses. On    
                                                        top of that, the stability fund will offer 400 billion euros   
                                                        in loan guarantees to secure corporate debt at risk of         
                                                        defaulting, taking the volume of the overall package to more   
                                                        than 750 billion euros.                                        
 Mar 20  New        Market Support  n/a        n/a      The central bank announced emergency measures including term                  
         Zealand                                        loans to banks and an agreement with the U.S. Federal Reserve  
         (RBNZ)                                         to access up to $30 billion to support the economy from the    
                                                        impact of coronavirus.                                         
 Mar 20  US /       U.S. Swap       n/a        n/a      The Fed said that it would increase the frequency of 7-day                    
         Cbanks     Facility                            maturity operations from weekly to daily, starting on March    
                                                        23, as part of its swap line arrangements with the Bank of     
                                                        Canada, Bank of England, Bank of Japan, European Central Bank  
                                                        and Swiss National Bank.                                       
 Mar 20  UK         Private Wage    n/a        n/a      The centrepiece of Britain's Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme                 
                    Payments                            is a new grant covering 80% of workers' salaries - up to a     
                                                        maximum of 2,500 pounds ($2,930) a month each - if firms kept  
                                                        them on. Britain also allowed businesses to temporarily hold   
                                                        on to 30 billion pounds ($35 billion) of value-added tax       
                                                        (VAT), which they would normally pass on to tax authorities.   
 Mar 20  UK         Social          7 billion     $8.2  Modest increases in the social security benefits payable to                   
                    security        pounds              workers who lose their jobs                                    
                    increases                                                                                          
 Mar 19  ECB        Bond Purchases  750         $820.0  The ECB agreed to boost asset purchases to about 1.1 trillion                 
                                    billion             euros ($1.20 trillion) this year. The buys include 20 billion  
                                    euro                euros a month as part of its already running quantitative      
                                                        easing scheme, a one-off 120 billion euro increase in the      
                                                        purchases and another one off 750 billion euros in a Pandemic  
                                                        Emergency Purchase Programme.                                  
 Mar 19  Korea      Financing       50           $39.0  emergency financing for small businesses and other stimulus                   
                                    trillion            measures. The government will issue loan guarantees for        
                                    won                 struggling small businesses with less than 100 million won     
                                                        ($78,000) in annual revenue to ensure they can easily and      
                                                        cheaply get access to credit                                   
 Mar 19  Australia  Quantitative    n/a        n/a      The RBA's stimulus includes a three-year funding facility for                 
                    Easing                              at least A$90 billion to the country's banks at a fixed rate   
                                                        of 0.25%. Lenders will be able to obtain initial funding of    
                                                        up to 3% of their existing outstanding credit. It also set a   
                                                        target for the yield on three-year Australian government       
                                                        bonds at around 0.25%, which it plans to achieve by purchases  
                                                        in the secondary market – the first time QE has been used in   
                                                        the country                                                    
 Mar 19  Australia  Bond Purchases  A$15          $8.3  In a separate statement, the government said it would buy                     
                                    billion             A$15 billion of residential mortgage-backed securities and     
                                                        other asset backed securities over the next 12 months.         
 Mar 19  UK (BOE)   Bond Purchases  200         $233.0  The 200 billion pound increase took the BoE's total asset                     
                                    billion             purchase plan to 645 billion pounds. BoE Governor Andrew       
                                    pounds              Bailey said the buying would be front-loaded as the central    
                                                        bank raced to counter chaos in financial markets that he said  
                                                        had been "bordering on disorderly" in recent days.             
 Mar 18  Australia  Airline         A$715         $0.4  The Australian government said it would refund and waive                      
                    Support                             charges to airlines such as domestic air traffic control fees  
                                                        worth A$715 million ($430 million), including A$159 million    
                                                        upfront.                                                       
 Mar 18  U.S. Fed   Liquidity       n/a        n/a      The Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility unveiled on                   
                    Facility                            Wednesday will make up to 1-year loans to financial            
                                                        institutions that pledge as collateral high quality assets     
                                                        like U.S. Treasury bonds that they have purchased from money   
                                                        market mutual funds.                                           
 Mar 18  Canada     Aid Package     C$27         $18.6  The government will provide up to C$900 every two weeks to                    
                                    billion             workers who must stay home but do not qualify for              
                                                        unemployment benefits, and a onetime special payment for low-  
                                                        and modest-income households, among other measures             
 Mar 18  Canada     Tax Deferrals   C$55         $38.0  The government will provide C$55 billion ($38 billion) in                     
                                    billion             additional aid to businesses and households through tax        
                                                        deferrals. The combined measures will put more than 3          
                                                        percentage points of the country's annual output into          
                                                        circulation, officials said.                                   
 Mar 18  Korea      Dollar Supply   n/a        n/a      The finance ministry and the Bank of Korea announced moves                    
                                                        that are expected to beef up dollar supply in the market by    
                                                        $5 billion to $10 billion, as the coronavirus causes chaos in  
                                                        global financial markets and a big demand for U.S. dollars.    
 Mar 17  New        Fiscal          NZ$12         $7.3  The fiscal package included wage subsidies, tax cuts, income                  
         Zealand    Stimulus        billion             support, investments into health and support for an aviation   
                                                        sector hit hard by travel restrictions                         
 Mar 17  France     Aid Package     45           $50.2  The lion's share of the overall crisis package - 32 billion                   
                                    billion             euros - would come in the form of deferred taxes and payroll   
                                    euros               charges for companies, and outright cancellation for firms at  
                                                        risk of bankruptcy.                                            
                                                        Another 8.2 billion euros has been earmarked to reimburse      
                                                        companies putting workers on reduced working schedules for     
                                                        two months.                                                    
 Mar 17  UK         Loan            330         $399.0  All retail, hospitality and leisure businesses are included                   
                    Guarantees      billion             in the suspension of a property tax, alongside the new loan    
                                    pounds              guarantee programme which was equivalent to 15% of British     
                                                        economic output.                                               
 Mar 17  UK         Business Tax    20           $24.2  Exemption from property taxes for all businesses in the                       
                    Cuts and        billion             retail, hospitality, leisure and childcare sectors, grants of  
                    Grants          pounds              up to 25,000 pounds for firms in these sectors, and grants of  
                                                        10,000 pounds for 700,000 very small businesses                
 Mar 17  UK (BoE)   Commercial      n/a        n/a      The BoE's Covid Corporate Financing Facility will buy                         
                    paper                               commercial paper with a maturity of up to 12 months from       
                    purchases                           businesses which had an investment-grade credit rating or      
                                                        similar pre-crisis.                                            
 Mar 17  EU         State Loan      n/a        n/a      Companies hit by the coronavirus will be allowed to receive                   
                    Waiver                              state grants up to 500,000 euros ($551,200) or subsidised      
                                                        state guarantees on bank loans as part of new temporary        
                                                        rules,                                                         
 Mar 17  U.S. Fed   Credit Flow     n/a        n/a      The Fed will reopen the so-called Commercial Paper Funding                    
                    Facility                            Facility to underwrite the short-term loans that companies     
                                                        often use to pay for their operations (Full Story), a key      
                                                        financial market backstop first set up 2007 to 2009. This      
                                                        includes $10 billion from the U.S. Treasury's Exchange         
                                                        Stabilization Fund (ESF) to capitalize the new facility and    
                                                        help shield the Fed from losses.                               
 Mar 16  France     Loan            300         $335.0  The government is guaranteeing up to 300 billion euros of                     
                    Guarantees      billion             corporate borrowing from commercial banks to keep credit       
                                    euros               flowing to the economy.                                        
 Mar 16  Japan      Cenbank Buying  12          $112.6  The BOJ decided to buy ETFs at an annual pace of around 12                    
         (BOJ)                      trillion            trillion yen ($112.55 billion), double the previous amount,    
                                    yen                 until markets stabilise from the recent rout. It will also     
                                                        double the pace of purchases for Japanese real-estate trust    
                                                        funds (J-REIT) to 180 billion yen per year, for the time       
                                                        being                                                          
 Mar 12  Australia  Stimulus        A$17.6       $11.4  The package will subsidise the wages of 120,000 apprentices,                  
                                    billion             offer one-off cash payments for welfare recipients and give    
                                                        up to A$25,000 ($16,160) to small businesses. More than 6      
                                                        million welfare recipients, notably pensioners and unemployed  
                                                        citizens, will get a one-off cash payment of A$750 from March  
                                                        31, he added.                                                  
 Mar 11  UK         Budget          30           $39.0  The cost of helping businesses and individuals was around 7                   
                    Stimulus Plan   billion             billion pounds while 5 billion pounds would go to the health   
                                    pounds              service and other departments fighting the spread of the       
                                                        virus. A further 18 billion pounds would go toward additional  
                                                        stimulus.                                                      
 Mar 11  UK (BoE)   Looser bank     190         $244.0  The BoE said  it was cutting banks' counter-cyclical capital                  
                    capital rules   billion             buffer (CCYB) to 0%, reversing a decision last year to raise   
                                    pounds              it from 1% to 2% by the end of 2020, supporting up to 190      
                                                        billion pounds of bank lending to businesses, equivalent to    
                                                        13 times banks' net lending to businesses in 2019, and giving  
                                                        them access to cheap 4-year credit to lend to small            
                                                        businesses through its Term Funding Scheme with additional     
                                                        incentives for SMEs (TFSME).                                   
 Mar 10  Japan                      430.8         $4.1  The new package will fund improvements to medical facilities,                 
                                    billion             ease the supply and demand of masks, promote working from      
                                    yen                 home, and provide subsidies to working parents who must take   
                                                        leave because of closed schools.                               
  Mar 6  U.S.       Spending        $8.3          $8.3  Funds to be used to bolster the country's capacity to test                    
                                    billion             for coronavirus and fund other measures to stem an outbreak    
  Mar 5  Italy      Spending        7.5           $8.4  The government would spend 7.5 billion euros ($8.40 billion)                  
                                    billion             and ask the European Union for the go-ahead to hike this       
                                    euros               year's deficit goal, currently set at 2.2% of gross domestic   
                                                        product                                                        
  Mar 4  Korea      Supplementary   11.7          $9.8  Of the 11.7 trillion won proposed, 3.2 trillion won will make                 
                    Budget          trillion            up for the revenue deficit while 8.5 trillion won will be      
                                    won                 extra fiscal injection.                                        
 Feb 25  China      Lending Quotas  500          $70.0  China will increase yuan re-lending and re-discount quotas by                 
                                    billion             500 billion yuan to help smaller banks increase support to     
                                    yuan                small and medium-sized businesses. China will also increase    
                                                        policy banks' loan quota by 350 billion yuan to make loans     
                                                        targeting private, small and medium enterprises                
 
    
 (Reporting by Reuters Staff; editing by)
  
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