December 16, 2009 / 12:14 PM / in 10 years

FACTBOX: Main issues, progress in Copenhagen climate talks

(Reuters) - About 115 world leaders and 193 countries are meeting in Copenhagen to agree the outlines of a new global deal to combat climate change.

Negotiators hope to seal a full climate treaty next year to succeed the Kyoto Protocol whose present round ends in 2012.

Following are key issues yet to be agreed, and some areas of possible agreement if draft texts are approved.

ONE TREATY OR TWO?

* No agreement yet on whether to extend Kyoto and add extra national commitments under a separate pact, or end Kyoto and agree one new treaty which specifies actions by all countries

* Kyoto limits the emissions of nearly 40 industrialized countries from 2008-2012, but the United States never ratified the pact and it doesn’t bind the emissions of developing nations

* Developed countries prefer one new treaty

* Developing nations want to preserve the Kyoto Protocol and agree a separate deal which also binds the United States and which includes finance for and action by developing nations

TERMS OF NEW TREATY

* No agreement on whether new pact or pacts would run from 2013-2017 or 2013-2020

* No agreement on whether would be legally binding

DEADLINE FOR NEW DEAL

* Copenhagen aims to agree a global climate pact. No agreement yet on a deadline to make that into a full treaty

* “Our goal is ... for a legally binding climate treaty as early as possible in 2010,” said U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on Tuesday

LONG-TERM GOAL

* No agreement yet on a long-term goal to avoid dangerous climate change

* A U.N. text on Tuesday proposed choices to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius or 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels, and to cut global greenhouse gas emissions by between 50 and 95 percent by 2050

* Poorer nations oppose long-term global targets until rich countries commit to do more in the short-term

MID-TERM RICH NATION EMISSIONS CUTS

* No agreement yet on how far individual rich countries should cut their emissions by 2020

* No agreement on a reference year for those cuts, for example compared with 1990, 2000 or 2005

* A draft Kyoto text on Tuesday proposed options for cuts of 30-45 percent, and another proposed 25-40 percent cuts

* Rich countries have so far proposed 14-18 percent

* Developing nations including China want collective rich nation cuts of at least 40 percent

CLIMATE ACTION BY DEVELOPING NATIONS

* No agreement yet on how far poorer countries should commit to targets to curb growth in greenhouse gases

* Developed countries want poorer countries to “stand behind” their targets through some kind of international inspection, which developing nations reject

* A Tuesday draft proposed a registry to record developing country actions, but left open whether that was voluntary

FINANCE

* No agreement yet on how much rich nations should pay developing nations in the short or medium term to help them fight climate change

* Rich nations have suggested about $10 billion per year from 2010-2012 which China and African nations have rejected as not enough

* No agreement on how much rich countries should pay from 2013. Developing nations have suggested figures of at least mid-term $200-$300 billion climate aid annually by 2020, compared with a European Union proposal of $150 billion

* No agreement on how the finance bill will be split between countries

* A Tuesday text proposed a “climate fund” but did not specify how much that would be, who would govern it or who would pay into it

EXCLUDED SECTORS, LOOPHOLES

* No agreement on whether to include aviation and shipping, and make it mandatory to include farming and forestry in targets

* Kyoto excludes greenhouse gases from aviation and shipping, responsible for at least 5 percent of global emissions

* Under Kyoto industrialized countries don’t have to include in their targets emissions from land use, including forests and farming

* Combined, farms and deforestation account for a third of global greenhouse gases

ROLE OF CARBON MARKETS

* No agreement yet on how to scale up carbon finance, where rich nations pay for emissions cuts in developing countries through trade in carbon offsets, for example by making bigger Kyoto’s existing $6.5 billion clean development mechanism (CDM)

* The European Union wants the scheme to invest tens of billions annually in developing nations by 2020

* No agreement on whether to include carbon capture storage in the CDM, a technology which cuts carbon emissions from coal plants

* No agreement on including forest preservation in CDM

* Likely agreement to allow developers to appeal against U.N. panel rejections of CDM projects

FORESTRY

* Likely agreement on rewarding tropical countries which slow deforestation under a new deal

* The latest draft Tuesday text includes safeguards to protect indigenous people’s rights and prevent rewards for conversion of virgin forests

* No agreement on how to fund forest preservation

Reporting by Gerard Wynn, Editing by Dominic Evans, gerard.wynn@reuters.com; +44 207 542 2302

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