December 17, 2017 / 1:04 AM / 2 years ago

FACTBOX-What's in the final U.S. Republican tax bill

    Dec 20 (Reuters) - The U.S. House of Representatives gave
final approval on Wednesday to a sweeping, debt-financed tax
bill in a midday vote. It now will go to President Donald Trump
to sign into law, although the timing of that was unclear.
    The Senate approved the bill early on Wednesday.
    Here are the key parts of the bill, representing the biggest
overhaul of the U.S. tax code in more than 30 years.
    CORPORATE TAX RATE: Cuts corporate income tax rate
permanently to 21 percent from 35 percent, as of Jan. 1, 2018.
    PASS-THROUGHS: Creates a 20 percent deduction for the first
$315,000 of qualified business income for joint filers of
pass-through businesses such as partnerships and sole
proprietorships. For income above that threshold, the
legislation phases in limits, producing an effective marginal
tax rate of no more than 29.6 percent.  
corporate alternative minimum tax, set up to ensure profitable
corporations pay at least some tax.

    TERRITORIAL SYSTEM: Exempts U.S. corporations from U.S.
taxes on most future foreign profits, ending the present
worldwide system of taxing profits of all U.S.-based
corporations, no matter where they are earned. This would align
the U.S. tax code with most other industrialized nations,
undercut many offshore tax-dodging strategies and deliver to
multinationals a goal they have pursued for years. 

    REPATRIATION: Sets a one-time mandatory tax of 8 percent on
illiquid assets and 15.5 percent on cash and cash equivalents
for about $2.6 trillion in U.S. business profits now held
overseas. This foreign cash pile was created by a rule making
foreign profits tax-deferred if they are not brought into the
United States, or repatriated. That rule would be rendered
obsolete by the territorial system.
    ANTI-BASE EROSION MEASURES: Prevents companies from shifting
profits out of the United States to lower-tax jurisdictions
abroad. Sets an alternative minimum tax on payments between U.S.
corporations and foreign affiliates, and limits on shifting
corporate income through transfers of intangible property,
including patents. In combination, these measures with the
repatriation and territorial system provisions, represent a
dramatic overhaul of the U.S. tax system for multinationals.
    CAPITAL EXPENSING: Allows businesses to immediately write
off, or expense, the full value of investments in new plant and
equipment for five years, then gradually eliminates this 100
percent expensing over five years beginning in year six. Also
makes changes to permit for more expensing by small businesses.
    INTEREST DEDUCTION LIMIT: Caps business deductions for debt
interest payments at 30 percent of taxable income, regardless of
deductions for depreciation, amortization or depletion. 

    CLEAN ENERGY: Preserves tax credits for producing
electricity from wind, biomass, geothermal, solar, municipal
waste and hydropower.

    CARRIED INTEREST: Leaves in place "carried interest"
loophole for private equity fund managers and some hedge fund
managers, despite pledges by Republicans including President
Donald Trump to close it. These financiers can now claim a lower
capital gains tax rate on much of their income from investments
held more than a year. A new rule would extend that holding
period to three years, putting the loophole out of reach for
some fund managers but preserving its availability for many.


    BRACKETS: Maintains current seven tax brackets, but
temporarily changes most income levels and rates for each one.
    For married couples filing jointly, effective Jan. 1, 2018
and ending in 2026, income tax would be:
    10 percent up to $19,050, versus 10 percent up to $18,650
under existing law;
    12 percent on $19,051 to $77,400, versus 15 percent
on$18,651 to $75,900;
    22 percent on $77,401 to $165,000, versus 25 percent on
$75,901 to $153,100;
    24 percent on $165,001 to $315,000, versus 28 percent on
$153,101 to $233,350;
    32 percent on $315,001 to $400,000, versus 33 percent on
$233,351 to $416,700;
    35 percent on $400,001 to $600,000, versus 35 percent on
$416,701 to $470,700
    37 percent above $600,000, versus 39.6 percent
    For single individuals, effective Jan. 1, 2018 and ending in
2026, income tax would be:
    10 percent up to $9,525, versus 10 percent up to $9,325
under existing law;
    12 percent from $9,526 to $38,700, versus 15 percent on
$9,326 to $37,950;
    22 percent on $38,701 to $82,500, versus 25 percent on
$37,951 to $91,900;
    24 percent on $82,501 to $157,500, versus 28 percent on
$91,901 to $191,650;
    32 percent on $157,501 to $200,000, versus 33 percent on
$191,651 to $416,700;
    35 percent on $200,001 to $500,000, versus 35 percent on
$416,701 to $418,400;
    37 percent above $500,000, versus 39.6 percent above
    These brackets would expire after 2025.

    STANDARD DEDUCTION: In a change expected to end itemizing of
deductions for millions of Americans, the bill for eight years
beginning on Jan. 1, 2018, would increase the standard deduction
- a fixed amount that can be subtracted from adjusted gross
income to lower taxable income - to $12,000 from $6,350 for
individuals, and to $24,000 from $12,700 for married couples.
    CHILD TAX CREDIT: Doubles the child tax credit to $2,000 per
dependent child under age 17, with a refundable portion of
$1,400. The refundable portion allows families to lower their
tax bills to zero and receive a refund for the remaining value.

    PERSONAL EXEMPTION: Temporarily eliminates the $4,050
individual personal exemption. Under present law, taxpayers who
earn below certain income caps can subtract this fixed dollar
amount from their adjusted gross incomes to lower their taxable
incomes. Generally, one exemption has been allowed per
individual, spouse and child or other dependent. This would take
effect Jan. 1, 2018, but then the personal exemption would
return in 2026. 
but temporarily changes it by raising its exemptions and
phase-outs. That will mean fewer people will have to pay the
tax, while those who still do will take a smaller hit from it.
    INHERITANCES: Raises the exemption for estate and gift taxes
to $10 million from $5 million per person and indexes the new
exemption level for inflation after 2011. That means even fewer
Americans would pay the estate tax, but it would stay on the

    MORTGAGES: For residences bought from Jan. 1, 2018, through
Dec. 31, 2025, the bill caps the deduction for mortgage interest
at $750,000 in home loan value. After Dec. 31, 2025, the cap
would revert to $1 million in loan value. Suspends the deduction
for interest on home equity loans from Jan. 1, 2018 until 2026.
    MEDICAL EXPENSES: Temporarily expands the deductibility of
out-of-pocket medical expenses through 2019.


    OBAMACARE MANDATE: Repeals federal fine imposed on Americans
under Obamacare for not obtaining health insurance coverage, a
change expected to undermine the 2010 healthcare law.

    ANWR DRILLING: Allows oil drilling in Alaska's Arctic
National Wildlife Refuge.

 (Reporting by Amanda Becker and David Morgan; Editing by Kevin
Drawbaugh and Bill Trott)
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